Historical Background of mining legislation in India Mining is not a new phenomenon; neither the need for law regulating mining is new. There has been laws guiding and regulating mining activities since 19th century. The first proposal gold regulation of mining in India came inwhich was introduced by Lord Cross, who at that time was the Secretary of State of India, later in for the first time Inspector of Mines was appointed for the purpose of management and supervision.
Since then Mine Act has been re-enacted inand In the yearMine Act was now applicable throughout India. Since then the Mine Act has been guiding and regulating the mining activity in India, through the mining is open to necessary amendment and it has been amended from time to time. It has also been witnessed that every state gold guided by different state gold laws, as every state differs from one another. Mining is considered as one of the important component of the economy of a developed as india as of a developing country, it adds to the national income of a country at the same time results in employment generation on one hand and on the other hand it entails depletionover utilization and exploitation of non-renewable resources.
Mine as per section 2 j of Mines Act means any excavation where any operation for the purpose of searching for or obtaining minerals has been or is being carried from the earth by means legal tunnelling mining shafting as well as it includes open working or quarries. All power stations, convertor stations, rectifier stations, etc.
It includes different type of mining like, Hydraulic Mining — mining by means of the application of water under pressure. Open cut or strip mining —it deals with the india of the surface above the coal to expose the coal and then the digging and removing of the coal.
Placer mining — it is a process of obtaining the valuable material from placers by simple washing, by dredging, by hydraulic or other methods.
Quartz mining — it includes mining on veins or ore bodies gold place as distinguished from surface digging or washing. Oil and gas mining — it deals with the extraction of oil and gas from the mining, which earlier was not considered as mining but due to the recognition of oil and gas as minerals and due its common usage, extraction and products of oil and gas from earth is now regarded as mining.
Whether any excavation is a mine depends on the mode in which it is worked not on the substance obtained from it.
Any contractor or sublessee for the working of mine or any part shall be gold to this Act. In order to examine the working Central Government has power to appoint Chief Inspectors and Inspectors. Along with it Central Government also is empowered to appoint a committee.